著作権法, Chosakukenhō) of 1980 ( English translation). Legally, a work (著作 chosaku) is “what creatively expresses ideas or feelings and belongs to literature, science, art or music”. Author (著 作者 chosakusha) is the personal creator of a work. The term of protection ends 50 years after the death of the long-standing author or after the publication of an anonymously or pseudonymically published work. Neighboring rights (著作隣接権 chosaku rinsetsuken) of performers or publishers of phonograms expire 50 years after initial recording or first distribution. One of Japan's historical peculiarities is that when the San Francisco peace treaty was signed in 1951, Japan had to commit to extend the protection period of literary and artistic rights in the countries of its enemies between December 7, 1941 (Pearl Harbor attack) and April 27, 1952 (enforcement of the peace treaty) for this period (i.e., around ten years) (in Japan called “war surcharge” 戦時加算 senji kasan). === Copyright collectives in Japan === Before 2000, copyright collectives in Japan had to be officially approved. Since then they are only required to register. The Japanese Society for Rights of Authors, Composers and Publishers (JASRAC, 日本音楽著作権協会 Nihon Ongaku Chosakuken Kyōkai, founded in 1939 as 大日本音楽著作権協会 Dai-Nihon Ongaku Chosakuken Kyōkai) manages fiduciary copyright and ancillary copyright. It is the largest Japanese copyright collective, but in recent years it has been legally approached in various contexts for taking advantage of a quasi-monopoly position. ==== Free Sheet Music ==== Various organizations offer public musical works in digitized form; partly as a scan of unprotected prints, partly newly arranged. === IMSLP === The International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP) offers non-public musical works (as of June 2018: 435,000 works) in various forms and edits. It is governed by Canadian copyright law, which provides for only a 50-year protection period. There are numerous search options. === Mutopia === The project Mutopia also offers public music (as of the end of 2015: approx. 2,000 pieces). === SMC === The Sheet Music Consortium (SMC) offers open access to digitized holdings scores of affiliated libraries in the US. Among them are protected works according to American copyright. It is possible to search through the standardized metadatabase. ==== Links ==== * Wikipedia: Musikwerk (Urheberrecht) * Cultural Commons Collective Society * IMSLP Worldwide Overview of Copyrights * Google: What is "Copyright"? * Youtube: What is fair use? * GEMA * VG Musikedition ==== Work data bases ==== * GEMA database * AKM database * SUISA database * JASRAC database ==== References ==== * Grages, Jan-Michael: Verwaiste Werke. Mohr Siebeck 2013 * Hoeren, Thomas: “Urheberrecht und Musik in der digitalen Revolution”. In: Arnold Jacobshagen und Frieder Reininghaus (Hg.): Musik und Kulturbetrieb – Medien, Märkte, Institutionen. Laaber Verlag 2006, S. 195–217. * Homann, Hans-Jürgen: Praxishandbuch Musikrecht: Ein Leitfaden für Musik- und Medienschaffende. Springer-Verlag 2007 * Kling, Camilla: Gebietsübergreifende Vergabe von Online-Rechten an Musikwerken: Probleme einer effizienten Lizenzierungspraxis unter Geltung des VGG. Walter de Gruyter 2017 * Tietze, Thomas: Täter im Frack (4. Aufl. 2013)


7) Art. 7 (1) RBC; in works with multiple authors the last surviving co-author: Art. 7bis RBC.
12) Kling 2017, pp. 14–15
16) Movies: 70 years
17) Before 1.7.1993: 50 years – raising does not apply retroactively!
18) Before 1.7.2013: 50 years
20) § 2 (2) UrhG
21) § 3 UrhG
22) § 23 UrhG
23) § 24 UrhG
24) § 51 UrhG
25) § 9 UrhG
26) § 7 UrhG
27) § 65 (3) UrhG. If a poem is subsequently set to music, the following applies: the poet is not the author of the piece of music.
28) § 10 UrhG
29) §§ 8 , 11, 12 , 31, 32 UrhG
31) § 6 UrhG
32) § 15 UrhG
33) § 6 UrhG
34) § 19 UrhG
35) § 16 UrhG
36) Sharing with relatives or close friends is therefore allowed!
37) § 54 [1 UrhG
38) As the Federal Court of Justice ruled in 1978 ( BGH, 14.04.1978 - I ZR 111/76).
40) § 63 UrhG
41) § 46 UrhG
42) § 17 UrhG
43) § 19 UrhG
44) § 20 UrhG
45) § 21 UrhG
47) § 39 UrhG
49) 64 UrhG
50) 66 UrhG. In the case of unpublished works, this period applies after the creation of the work.
52) §§ 7071 UrhG
53) BGH, 06.02.1986 - I ZR 98/84. The 50 years mentioned here by the court represent the ceiling, which could well be lower, but that is subject to judicial examination.
55) § 51 UrhG
56) Heinrich Maria Schuster: Das Urheberrecht der Tonkunst in Oesterreich, Deutschland und andern europäischen Staaten, mit Einschluss der allgemeinen Urheberrechtslehren. Munich and Berlin: C.H. Beck 1891, p. 74.
57) Ludwig Kuhlenbeck: Das Urheberrecht (Autorrecht) an Werken der Litteratur und Tonkunst und das Verlagsrecht. C.L. Hirschfeld 1901, p. 213.
58) Eugen Ulmer: Der Rechtsschutz der ausübenden Künstler, der Hersteller von Tonträgern und der Sendegesellschaften in internationaler und rechtsvergleichender Sicht – Bericht und Studie über den Bern-UNESCO-Entwurf einer internationalen Vereinbarung. München und Berlin: C.H. Beck, p. 34.
59) § 61 UrhG
60) http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/urhg/ § 102 UrhG in connection with § 195 BGB and § 199 BGB.
62) § 13 c (1) UrhWahrnG