Ukulele.Space

Everybody should play and have a 'UKE'. — George Harrison

Klangholz

Klangholz
Tonholz
tonewood楽器用木材

Holz, das wegen seiner Klangeigenschaften (Erzeugung von Resonanz) für den Bau von Musikinstrumenten verwendet wird. Dazu gehören u.a.:

Klangholz kann massiv oder laminiert (furniert) verbaut werden.

Maserungen

Eine auffällige Maserung erhöht die optische Attraktivität des Holzes, ohne seiner Klangeigenschaften zu verändern. Bei der Maserung mancher Klanghölzer werden unterschieden:

Geriegelt

Flamed, z.B. Riegelahorn. Vor allem bei Bäumen, die im Gebirge wachsen, entsteht durch eine Anomalie im Wachstum eine Maserung, die wie Tigerstreifen aussieht und Riegeltextur genannt wird. Dabei verlaufen die Holzfasern nicht wie parallel, sondern wellenförmig zur Längsachse des Baumstammes, was zu einem streifenförmigen Muster führt. Da sich solche Bäume bislang nicht züchten lassen, ist natürlich „geflammtes“ Holz teuer.

Gestockt

Spalted, z.B. spalted mango. Die Maserung wird durch Pilzbefall erzeugt. Der Pilz wird beim Trocknen des Holzes abgetötet.

Gemuschelt

Quilted, z.B. Wölkchenahorn.

Behandlungen

Geflammt (geflämmt)

Um Klangholz älter und rustikaler aussehen zu lassen, kann seine Oberfläche (in der Regel mit einem Gasbrenner) angesengt werden. Je länger diese Behandlung dauert, desto dunkler wird das Holz. Holzhändler bieten ihr geflämmtes Holz deshalb in Abstufungen wie „leicht, mittel, gut, best“ an. Geflämmt werden können Decke, Zargen und Boden des Korpus.

Lackiert

Eine bei Saiteninstrumenten beliebte Art der Lackierung ist die Schattierung.

Kritik

First of all (and speaking from a steel string guitar perspective), let's discard the notion that some species of wood make good instruments and that others don't. The concept of tonewood is a hoax. Of the few things that we can do to a guitar and still call it a guitar, changing the wood it is made of will have the least impact upon the quality of the sound that it produces. The tonal difference between a mahogany guitar and a rosewood guitar is exactly the same as the difference between two mahogany guitars or two rosewood guitars. Can you tell what a guitar is made of while listening to an unfamiliar recording? No one I know claims they can. No one at the blind listening sessions I've attended could reliably distinguish between mahogany and rosewood guitars, or maple and Koa guitars for that matter.
Guitars sound like guitars. No matter how poorly or bizarrely they are made, you'll never confuse the natural sound of an acoustic guitar with that of a banjo, a mandolin, a drum or a flute. Obviously, not all guitars sound alike, but even when we think we can distinguish a night-and-day difference, it won't be so extreme that one will sound like a guitar and another won't. We may have a strong preference for one or another, but they will all sound like guitars. If they didn't, they would be called something else.
The tone of a guitar lies more in the hands of the builder than in the materials from which it is constructed. With increased experience, the level of craftsmanship increases. As the quality of the luthier's instruments goes up, the tonal difference between the instruments goes down. There are not only fewer dogs, but it becomes more difficult to build one that stands noticeably above the others. I noted this phenomenon in my mountain dulcimers years ago, and more recently have seen it happen to my guitars.
Psychoacoustics plays such a large role in this matter that it's difficult to discuss tone objectively. (I think that it's called psychoacoustics because trying to figure out stringed instruments will make you psycho.) We hear what we expect to hear, what we have been taught to hear, what we want to hear, and often what we hope to hear. Many luthiers and musicians alike spend hundreds of hours and thousands of dollars collecting information and recordings and they have come to have a stake in the sanctity of its rightness. They need the vast body of instrument mythology to be correct, and strongly oppose the possibility that it may be bogus. This makes it extremely difficult for a daring luthier to sell instruments that aren't made of standard varieties of wood.

John Calkin: The Heretic's Guide to Alternative Lutherie Woods

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